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It is located in the south of the country. Due to its geographical position is the natural end of dispersal of species north and south, so it is a sample of the most representative of the ecological wealth of the country with scientific research value.
Its biodiversity is very rich in terrestrial and marine, endemic or endangered species (cats and birds) species. The indigenous presence remains found show that the area was inhabited (particularly the Caño Island), which is considered archaeological site.
The area protects and preserves outstanding resources such as tropical rain forest and very humid, rainy, archaeological features; sandy beaches, rocky cliffs, reefs, wetland ecosystems, spawning marine species, wildlife, etc.
It is estimated that the Osa Peninsula has 375 bird species of which 18 are endemic, 124 species of terrestrial mammals (58 are bats), 61 species of freshwater fish, about 8,000 species of insects, 71 species of reptiles and 46 amphibian species. The species recorded in this area represent between 30% and 50% of the known species in Costa Rica (Cuello Nieto, 1998).